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FAQ medical treatment Germany - FAQ dental treatment Germany and Dental Lexicon




FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions and Dental Encyclopedia / Lexicon

BERLIN-KLINIK International Hospital and Dental Clinic / Germany currently most frequent questions to the BERLIN-KLINIK Team are in the fields:


FAQ - Dental Implants / Implantological treatment in Germany

FAQ - International patients / medical tourism Germany

FAQ - General anaesthetic for dental treatment

FAQ - Hyaluronic acid

FAQ - Rhinoplasty

FAQ - Breast implants

FAQ - Lip enhancement

Dental Lexicon for Patients



FAQ are continuously being updated

If you have any specific questions, please let us know. In the following you will find FAQ, frequently asked questions, in relation to the following key words and therapies: BERLIN-KLINIK international hospital, Dental Clinic Germany; Dental hospital Berlin outpatient inpatient; outpatient therapy, inpatient therapy, total anaesthesia Treatment, total anaesthesia dental Rehabilitation, total anaesthesia dental implantology, dental implantology, immediate implantology, ceramic implants, biological implants, soft anaesthesia, non toxic Treatment, biological dental Treatment, anti allergic dental Rehabilitation, anti allergic dental implants, anti allergic dental fillings, radiation free digital x-ray, soft digital volume tomography, DVT, CT, MR; date, dates, experts implants Berlin; Implants, Interim implant, transitory implant, immediate implant, implantology, implantology, scientific publication bone resorption specialist osteochondral; dentist, dentures; implant prosthetics, epithetics, dentures; parodontology, parodontitis, periimplantitis; laser therapy, ozone therapy, ultrasound therapy; angst patient, anaesthesia, anaesthesia reconstruction, anaesthesia treatment, general anaesthesia, dentist fear, dentist phobia, treatment phobia; aesthetic dentistry, ceramic veneers, zirkonium veneers, full ceramic veneers, non-prep veneers, aesthetic implantology, teeth aesthetics; prophylaxis, DH dental hygiene, bleaching, bleaching procedures, BriteSmile; Periodontics Germany; Endodontia, OP-microscope, Dental microscope; foreign patients, international patients, translator; Medical assessor forensic medicine; plastic surgery, aesthetic surgery, cosmetic surgery; anti-aging therapy, wrinkle treatment (by injection), Botox, Botox effect, Botox results; facelift, SMAS-Facelift, Liquid Facelift; Rhinoplasty, Nose-job; breast operation, breast augmentation Berlin, lip augmentation, lip correction



FAQ - Dental Implants Berlin

What is an immediate implant and what is a late dental implant?

Answer: An immediate implant is inserted immediately after the removal of a tooth. A late implant is inserted only some time after tooth removal. The immediate implant is the best therapy to protect the bones. In the BERLIN-KLINIK for dental Implants we insert immediate implants on a daily basis. Quickly and pain-free.


Can I also get implants if I have periodontal disease and bone loss?

Answer: Yes! It is very rarely periodontal disease, but more often a form of parodontitis. Detailed pre-operative examination determines why you have lost bone material. Then we address the reasons and insert implants. In the BERLIN-KLINIK Periodontological Department we are specialised on Parodontosis-therapy, parodontology and implantology.


Is a DVT or CT necessary prior to an implant?

Answer: A digital volume tomography (DVT) or a computer tomography (CT) is only necessary in very few exceptional cases. Most DVT images presented to us usually don't contribute to a quicker, safer or more successful operation. Moreover, the radiation exposure of a DVT or a CT has to be considered. DVT and CT are only reasonable if the image data contributes positively to operation security or result and offer new insights versus digital OPGs.


Why don't you have before-after images of implants on the BERLIN-KLINIK homepage?

Answer: According to law the comparative display of appearance before and after treatment outside expert groups must not be used for advertising purposes. Spirit and purpose of the law (§ 11 No. 5 b HWG Law on Advertising in the Health Care System) is to mitigate and prevent deception and irrelevant, suggestive manipulation of medical laymen.


Is it still possible to still see before-after pictures of a similar implant operation like it is planned for me?

Answer: Reliant on many years of scientific documentation of operations and therapies and the results of thousands of surgeries and treatments by our medical areas of expertise all BERLIN-KLINIK international hospital doctors can in your personal consultation show you pictures that are exemplary of a potential result for you.


I am taking Marcumar / Falithrom, can I still get implants?

Answer: Yes! Dependent on therapeutic coagulation value and anatomic situation no change is needed. In the case of more comprehensive implant operations as a Marcumar patient you might need to change your INR/Quick-Value temporarily under the supervision of your GP or internist. Where necessary you might inject Heparin for a couple of days. The change is only necessary for the day of the operation and the day after. The BERLIN-KLINIK hospital for Implants Dental Implantology team is prepared for patients at risk both outpatient or as inpatient.


"Sustainable teeth in an hour" ... what does that mean?

Answer: "Solid teeth in an hour" is not originally a dentist therapy message but an advertising slogan by the industry that serves to get patients into the surgeries to sell them their products, implants (the sustainable teeth usually still don't happen within an hour). What is meant instead is an immediate implant or late implant with immediate dentures. Theoretically, this could be done in even less than 30 minutes. However, it should only be used in exceptional circumstances. The BERLIN-KLINIK Implantological Department offers you upon request and with corresponding reports reputable immediate implants with or without immediate provision. The internationally experienced experts Dr. Dr. Stefan Schermer, PD Dr. Dr. Michael Stiller and Dr. Uwe Ryguschick carry out these operations.


Is it better to insert implants with a drilling jig, instead of cutting the gums?

Answer: No! This is a fake-"minimal-invasive" therapy. Again this is not really an advancement of surgical technology but a selling trick by the industry. It is supposed to give the inexperienced dentist a means to still be able to insert implants. Generally, implants directly through the skin into the bone does not constitute technically clean surgery. The necessary cuts will not be visible and you will not notice them as uncomfortable. The drilling jigs are only helpful and necessary in very complex implantological or OMS surgical procedures.


So you can't fit a dental crown onto a fresh implant?

Answer: No, you can! However, the necessary anatomical preconditions and clinical findings need to be given. It would be dubious to offer blanket immediate treatment. In any case it is safer to allow the implant to heal first. Bone only grows when left alone and if an implant is loaded on before it has properly grown in, it might fall out. The BERLIN-KLINIK Dental hospital offers you reputable immediate implants and late implants with or without immediate provision.


I am missing 3 molar teeth. Is it possible to put a dental bridge on two implants?

Answer: Yes! However, take into consideration that three missing molar teeth normally grow around 7-10 roots. To now only set two artificial roots, especially if the bone has already deteriorated, might lead to overload and loss of the dentures. It is more stable and safer to replace each tooth (1-4 roots) with an artificial root, an implant. BERLIN KLINIK Implant Specialists teach to replace 1 missing tooth with 1 dental implant in most cases to provide security and stability in any case.


Is an implant painful?

Answer: An implant is not part of the painful treatments. Even the drilling in the bone does not hurt. Implantology is usually carried out pain free and under local anaesthesia at the BERLIN-KLINIK Dental Implant Dep.. More comprehensive implants with bone construction are carried out under general anaesthesia either outpatient or in residential treatment. The pain after the operation is if only minimal. A normal painkiller is sufficient to be free of pain.


Are there risks with dental implants treatment?

Answer: Of course there are risks like with any medical procedure. It is particularly important to be mindful of the lower jaw nerve in the lower lateral tooth area. In the upper jaw lateral tooth area one should consider the maxillary sinus. However, with good planning and implementation the risks during the procedure tend to be very low. In any case we always tailor the risk analysis and procedural education in the BERLIN-KLINIK Implantological Department to individual examination results of our patients.


I am a smoker. Can I still get implants?

Answer: There are studies showing that complications and implant loss during the healing time of an implant are 4x more likely with smokers than with non-smokers. Still, implants can be successfully set also with smokers. How important smoking is to you given the health risks is up to you.


My dentist says I can't get implants because I have too little bone?

Answer: Even if your dentist has already rejected your wish for implants, the experienced implantology experts of the BERLIN-KLINIK dental implant Dep. can often still set implants. This is thanks to modern and safe bone replacement procedures, bone construction, alloplastic or bone transplant, and experienced safe dental implant procedures.


Can a titan implant be rejected?

Answer: Titan is biocompatible and one of the most agreeable materials of bone surgery and dental/OMS surgery. A rejection per se does not happen. However, as in any surgical procedure, an infection during the healing phase is theoretically possible and can lead to implant loss.


How long is the healing phase for dental implants?

Answer: If there is enough bone and an uncomplicated dental implant is possible, the healing phase is approximately 8-12 weeks. In the case of weak, fallen in bones or bone construction or maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedure (sinus lift) it can take between 6-9 months. The BERLIN-KLINIK Implant department is recommending a safe 'covered' healing under the gums.


What does Implant-Healing phase mean?

Answer: This is the phase that the bone needs to grow into the micro surface of the implants to anchor them securely. The procedure of this 'growing in' is called osseointegration. In the BERLIN-KLINIK implantological Dep. we recommend the safe growing in underneath the gums.


Are there different types of implants?

Answer: There are over 100 different Titan dental implant systems and several ceramics implant systems. They differ in their technical construction and in the way the crown is attached. Here one has to mind a minimal micro fissure. In general, modern implants are rotation symmetric and dispose of a thread. The threads differ according to the intended use. All modern high value systems have an osseointegration surface. In the BERLIN-KLINIK implantological department we use adequate implant systems dependent on individual examination results. All systems have bacteria impermeable micro fissures or special threads. We hold them in all customary sizes and special sizes to guarantee that we can use the optimal implant for you.


Are dental ceramics implants better than dental titanium Implants?

Answer: Not yet. Ceramic implants are not yet as safe and diversely usable as two-part titanium implants. The definite disadvantage is the not yet optimally rough surface. This, for the eye invisible, micro-surface is responsible for the osseointegration, the 'growing in' or 'healing in' of the implant. At the BERLIN-KLINIK Implantological Department we routinely use titan implants, abutments made of zircon-oxide and crowns made of full ceramics. We only employ ceramics implants according to very strict indication.


What is an abutment?

Answer: This is the third building block of the implant tooth: The implant is the root underneath the gums, the abutment is the stumble that sticks out of the gums and onto which the crown will be glued or screwed. In the BERLIN-KLINIK Implant Dep. we use implants made of pure titan and abutments and crowns made of zircon-oxide and full ceramics.


How are dental implants cared for?

Answer: Dental implants are cleaned with a toothbrush, inter-dental brushes and dental floss. Regular dental controls and professional cleanings are as necessary as with one's own teeth to ensure long-term dental health. The BERLIN-KLINIK Prophylaxis Dep.ensures your dental health and your implants with a recall-system and procedures specialised on dental hygiene.


I have diabetes and would like to have implants?

Answer: Important for the success of implants is the correct level of blood sugar. Moderate lifestyle, blood sugar control and regular post-operation check-ups are reducing the risk. In addition, we recommend an antibiotics-prophylaxis. The general risk of all surgical procedures is higher in the case of diabetics. Loss of implant is therefore also more likely because of sub-optimal wound healing. The healing in phase might therefore be slightly longer. The BERLIN-KLINIK Implantologist Team is fully prepared for the treatment of patients at risk – both as out- or in-patients.


Will I be able to eat everything again with dental implants?

Answer: Of course you will be able to eat everything again. After a healing in phase the dental implants are as robust as your own teeth. However, during the healing in phase you should, if possible, not eat any food that forces you to chew.


I have osteoporosis. Can I get implants?

Answer: In general, yes! Osteoporosis is not a contraindication, but demands particular diligence and experience.



FAQ - international patients / medical tourism BERLIN-KLINIK

I would like to be examined as a foreign patient at the BERLIN-KLINIK international hospital. Unfortunately, I don't speak any German. What are my options?

Answer: No problem! There is the possibility that a member of the BERLIN-KLINIK Team understands you or that they can arrange an experienced translator for you.


I have read that a full reconstruction of all teeth and implants can be done in only one treatment under general anaesthesia?

Answer: Yes, that is possible. The doctoral team of the BERLIN-KLINIK international hospital has been offering these therapies for a long time. Important is the very detailed and comprehensive planning and preparation.


How high are the costs for a treatment with the BERLIN-KLINIK international hospital?

Answer: The treatment costs will be calculated individually at BERLIN-KLINIK international hospital. They are dependent on duration of treatment, the severity the illness, and the required additional services, e.g. the treatment through the chief physician or the room category.


I have heard that the BERLIN-KLINIK has a good international reputation. I would like to know how much the price of a reconstruction of my teeth under general anaesthetics would be? What are the costs of a dental implant?

Answer: The treatment costs for a reconstruction or an implant are among others dependent on additional chosen services and anatomical starting conditions. The costs will be computed for you individually. You will not have to travel to Germany for this. Initially, it is enough to sent us an x-ray via email.


How can I get a panoramic dental X-ray for my quote?

Answer: A panoramic x-ray/OPG is not generally carried out only by dentists . Ask for a prescription from your doctor and the address of a medical imaging centre where you can go to have the OPG -X-ray. If possible, ask for a digital-, computerized or numeric X-ray which you can receive by email and forward to BERLIN KLINIK International Office.


How do I send the X-ray to BERLIN-KLINIK to get a quote?

Answer: Above all, do not scan, fax or photograph the X-ray yourself, as the result is not legible for a dentist because it may become too blurred and/or dark. Instead, send it to us by email if you have a digital X-ray to this address in Berlin: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or for our russian patients to our International Office: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

What else is important to add?

Answer: Please attach all the following informations to your X-ray: Your Family name / surname, first name, email address and telephone number, and the type of treatment you wish to have from BERLIN KLINIK (e.g. dental  implant, plastic surgery)


What maybe false good ideas?

Answer: Only sending us a quote drawn up elsewhere. The responsible BERLIN KLINIK doctor will always ask to see your panoramic X-ray before giving you a quote as he may not agree with the solution proposed because there are often many methods to achieve the same more or less successful result. Even be sure that it is definitely not possible to only compare offers by the price. Medicine and Dentistry today is much to complicated for such easy comparisons. All details are necessary to decide about an offer.


Are the travel cost included in the medical quote?

Answer: Dental Travelers sometimes  ask us for a quote including the cost of transport and accommodation. These costs can vary slightly depending on the day of departure, how far in advance you book your trip, the place of departure and the type of hotel you wish to have. For this reason, it is not possible for us to give you these prices definitively with your quote!  Therefor we provide for you the BERLIN KLINIK International Office.


Can I compare prices of detailled offers?

Answer: Sometimes it may be possible but mostly not. Do not only compare the price if you have several quotes! Also compare the following points guaranteed by BERLIN KLINIK International Hospital: Quality at worlds highest level in materials and techniques, International Office team and sometimes even a doctor who speaks your language perfectly, a doctor who is international reknown and a teacher in ist field, State controlled insurance covering the risk of any eventual complications, the possibility of having treatment in your country upon return and much more items. You only have one body - do not compromise! 


How can I plan my travel and treatment schedule?

Answer: You choose the dates which suit you and email them to us. Then there are 2 possible ways: You check the time and price of your plane ticket and hotel reservation if necessary and communicate these to us. We will confirm quickly in 24h. The other way ist hat you call our BERLIN KLINIK  International Patients Office and just tell them the time that you want to come to Berlin. Our International Patients Office will then arrange all your travel and stay if you want.


Are there any particular risks in going abroad for medical and dental treatment?

Answer: No, as long as you follow certain rules and if anything for you is not to understand then please ask immediately. We also insist on the fact that you must give us all necessary informations about your health and that you follow all instructions which the doctor will give you, for example, rest after the operation! It is impossible to eliminate risks at all ! However the risk of treatment abroad is not higher than in your own country. We even think that it is much more save and under better control in BERLIN KLINIK as in any other place.


What happens if there are complications abroad or upon my return?
Answer: We have much experience in treating demanding patients and will do everything in our power to avoid complications. BERLIN KLINIK doctors will give you all the necessary recommendations for good post-operative follow-up  and will eventually recommend you a colleague near to where you live if necessary for a certain period. It is, however, impossible to eliminate all risks of complication in dentistry and medicine. It should be noted that complications are not necessarily attributable to the doctor's responsibility. They can sometimes occur due to a pre-existing condition, bad luck, or negligence or incompliance by the patient.


Can I go abroad with a friend / member of my family?
Answer: Of course, indeed we would recommend this. Going for treatment abroad is much more pleasant in good company. The slight increase in cost associated with being accompanied is largely compensated for by the benefits of having someone with you.


I am planning to come to Berlin for an outpatient examination. Would you be able to organise accommodation for me in the vicinity of BERLIN-KLINIK international hospital?

Answer: Yes, we can reserve a hotel in the neighbourhood of BERLIN-KLINIK international hospital for you.


Why don't you have before-after images of implants on the BERLIN-KLINIK homepage?

Answer: According to law the comparative display of appearance before and after treatment outside expert groups must not be used for advertising purposes. Spirit and purpose of the law (§ 11 No. 5 b HWG Law on Advertising in the Health Care System) is to mitigate and prevent deception and irrelevant, suggestive manipulation of medical laymen.


Is it still possible to still see before-after pictures of a similar implant operation like it is planned for me?

Answer: Reliant on many years of scientific documentation of operations and therapies and the results of thousands of surgeries and treatments by our medical areas of expertise all BERLIN-KLINIK doctors can in your personal consultation show you pictures that are exemplary of a potential result for you.


How will I pay for treatment?

Answer: Initially, we will send you a cost proposal by mail or upon request by fax. This will include all bank account details of the BERLIN-KLINIK international hospital, a description of treatment, costs and duration of treatment. You can then either transfer the treatment costs or pay in person with a credit card or in cash prior to the start of your treatment.


My daughter is two years old and has to have an operation. Would it be possible to stay with her in a patient room at the BERLIN-KLINIK international hospital?

Answer: Yes, accommodation of accompanying persons in the same room or upon request in an extra room is possible. 


How long is the preparation phase for international patients prior to travel to Berlin for dental treatment?

Answer: In order to get all necessary formalities out of the way it might take up to seven to eight days. However, in the case of an emergency this can also be arranged quicker.


Can I pay directly at the BERLIN-KLINIK for my treatment or do all bills have to be settled by bank transfer?

Answer: Yes, you can pay in person by credit card or in cash. A prepayment will however be required in any case as soon as dates have to be planned for you.


Which documents are required for a visa application for medical treatment in Germany?

Answer: You will need: The invitation by the BERLIN-KLINIK Dental hospital Berlin-Mitte, potentially the booking confirmation of a hotel, a valid passport, a passport picture, and a completed visa application.


My mother is 70 years old and has to have an operation. Can I accompany her during dental treatment?

Answer: Yes of course, you can accompany your mother. In this case, we can send you an invitation, too. We can organize accommodation in the BERLIN-KLINIK or in a hotel nearby.


What should I pack for a stay in the hospital during medical treatment in Germany?

Answer: We recommend you bring the following: All existing medical documents, a list of all required medication as well as the medication itself, a pyjama or track suit, a pair of comfortable shoes, and cosmetics. during operation you can be dressed by BERLIN KLINIK healthcare Dep. with special desinfected hospital garments if you want.


Will I be able to use my mobile phone in the BERLIN-KLINIK ?

Answer: The use of mobile phones is generally allowed. However, we recommend to only use your mobile phone in the case of emergencies.



FAQ general anaesthetic for dental treatment

What is the difference between local anaesthetic and general anaesthetic?

Answer: A local anaesthetic is injected close to the nerves (e.g. Articain, Lidocain, Procain, Novocain...) at the body or in the mouth, so that they no longer forward any pain. This permits pain-free surgery of the affected part of the body. General anaesthetic uses narcotics to induce unconsciousness. Such substances can be injected into the veins (e.g. Propofol, Ketamine) or inhaled as a gas (e.g. nitrous oxide or Halothane). In addition to inducing unconsciousness, pain killers and muscle relaxants are administrated as well. We at BERLIN-KLINIK usually use TIVA general anaesthetic and the very well compatible medication Propofol.


Who is responsible for general anaesthetic at BERLIN KLINIK?

Answer: The anaesthetist, a specialist for anaesthesia and emergency medicine, is responsible for keeping the patient in an artificially induced sleep during surgery and to remove his muscle reflexes. He is responsible for the overall condition of the patient during surgery and the time after surgery. The anaesthetist is not only responsible for preparation and performance of anaesthesia during surgery, but also monitors and ventilates the patient after the surgery on the ward and in intensive care, as well as dealing with pain therapy. Anaesthetists are responsible for ensuring the vital functions of breathing and cardiac activity.


Who can be treated under general anaesthetic at BERLIN-KLINIK?

Answer: Generally, any healthy person can be treated under general anaesthetic. There is hardly any age limit for it anymore. General anaesthetic can be used just as well in a two-year old child as in an eighty-year-old adult. The anaesthetist will decide from case to case, according to condition and constitution, whether or not anaesthesia is possible. We specialise in therapy for adults, but we are able to treat children as well. Treatment under general anaesthetic permits unpleasant, complicated or very comprehensive surgery and therapy at best efficiency for therapy scope / time.


How will I be monitored during general anaesthesia at BERLIN KLINIK?

Answer: The following of the patient's body functions are monitored continually: ECG, recording of the heart's electrical activity, by a monitoring device for continuous observation of the patient's cardiac activity. The blood oxygen content is also continually monitored. For this, a pulse oxymeter with a sensor is attached to the patient's finger. Blood oxygen content is also continually registered to continually adjust the concentration and mixture of the anaesthetics. For this, a small bracket with a sensor is attached to the patient's finger. The patient's blood pressure is measured with a collar on his arm or by a probe in the wrist artery. For larger surgeries, the blood pressure can also be measured right at the heart. This is performed by a catheter that is pushed through a vein at the neck or below the clavicle until it nearly reaches the heart.


How will the anaesthetic be administered at BERLIN-KLINIK?

Answer: To initiate general anaesthesia, a quick-acting soporific is injected into the patient's vein. The most frequently used anaesthesia is called TIVA Total Intravenous Anaesthesia. The medication used is Propofol. During surgery, various medications must be injected into the blood stream through a cannula with vein access. It is usually applied at the back of the hand.


Who performs anaesthesia and general anaesthesia at BERLIN-KLINK?

Answer: Local anaesthesia is usually performed by the surgeon himself. For more comprehensive types of anaesthesia, analgo sedation or general anaesthesia, the anaesthetist, specialist for anaesthesia and emergency medicine at BERLIN-KLINIK, is responsible. He is supported by specialised nurses and regular nurses, who will assist him before, during and after surgery.


Which examinations are required before anaesthesia?

Answer: The anaesthetist must be informed in detail about the physical condition of his patient before any surgery. There is a premedication interview for this. Only this information enables him to select the correct type of anaesthesia. Possibly required preliminary examinations include recording of the heart current curve (ECG), a thoracic X-ray (heart and lung) and blood examination (haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, coagulation factor, creatinine, urea and liver values); a lung-function test may also be required. The examinations are determined by the number and type of existing diseases and the surgery's requirements. The patient must not suffer from any acute sickness like cold, flu, cough, etc. After such sickness, surgery should not be performed for at least two weeks. In case of chronic diseases of the heart, lungs, blood, liver, thyroid gland or lungs, your attending physician must approve the anaesthesia! In this case, the patient must inform his or her general practitioner.


Will the anaesthetist inform the patient of the type and risks of anaesthesia?

Answer: Of course. Before surgery, the anaesthetist will discuss everything that may be important for anaesthesia based on the anaesthesia questionnaire the patient completed. In particular, existing diseases, earlier surgery and possible facts and results that may lead to anaesthesia problems are inquired about. The anaesthetist will also inform the patient of the different possibilities of anaesthesia and support him in his decision. The anaesthetist does, however, depend on focussed and honest cooperation by the patient.


Why is it forbidden to eat or drink for eight hours before surgery?

Answer: During general anaesthetic, the entire tension of the body's muscles is removed by muscle relaxants. This measure is required to permit the surgeon to work easily. At the same time, this means that the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract are relaxed. This leads to the danger of stomach content flowing back into the oesophagus and from there getting into the trachea and the lungs. This would be a potentially fatal complication! Therefore, you must not eat or drink within eight hours before your elective anaesthesia. In case of emergency surgery, the stomach is emptied with a probe or emptying is inhibited by medication.


What medication must be taken before surgery under general anaesthetic?

Answer: The anaesthetist and your general practitioner will decide together whether you may/should continue to take medication you previously took regularly due to your doctor's prescription or voluntarily. The patient is obliged to inform the anaesthetist as precisely a possible of EVERYTHING he has taken, if possible in writing. The anaesthetist specifies the previous medication / medication to be taken before the surgery or what medication is to be used to prepare you for surgery.


Do I have to expect adverse effects or any complications during surgery?

Answer: Of course. Just as you need to expect to be injured or die when crossing a road, disaster is possible during ANY medical intervention! Frequent adverse effects of various anaesthesia methods are nausea, vomiting, sore throat or temporary numbness of anaesthetized or strained body regions. Usually, they are unpleasant for patients, but relatively harmless and will pass without any consequences. The anaesthetist tries to avoid them and also knows how to alleviate these symptoms if required. Other complications like allergic shock, metabolic decompensation or cardiac arrest are unpredictable adverse effects.


Will I surely wake up again after anaesthesia?

Answer: When the surgery is completed, anaesthesia will be ended by no longer adding any anaesthetic. The anaesthetist will inject medication that revokes the anaesthesia effect and removes the muscle relaxation. The patient will wake up in the surgical theatre and be taken to the ward room in the bed or a wheelchair, where his bed is waiting for him. However, the patient will be sleepy for some time longer, depending on constitution, intensity and duration of anaesthesia. All important bodily functions need to be monitored uninterrupted for some time longer on the ward and the organism must be supplied with all necessary substances and medication intravenously.


Will I need to vomit after anaesthesia?

Answer: The older ether or chloroform anaesthesia methods had vomiting as a near-typical part of anaesthesia. State-of-the-art anaesthesia gases and venous anaesthetics that are injected are much less of a strain on the organism, so that post-surgical vomiting occurs rarely or never. If the patient is nauseous after waking from anaesthesia anyway, this condition is treated with medication.


Does general anaesthetic at BERLIN-KLINIK also have adverse effects that may harm me?

Answer: Just like any medication, anaesthetics may also have adverse effects. They need to be degraded by the liver, for example, which may cause problems if the liver is already damaged. Very. very rare allergic reactions may also occur. If there is an allergic shock during anaesthesia, an allergologist must systematically find out the substance that may have triggered the allergy after surgery. This is vital for later surgeries.


Is it possible to go home after general anaesthetic at BERLIN-KLINIK?

Answer: Generally yes. Outpatient anaesthesia requires that there is a person available to take the patient home and present close to the patient's residence. Driving is forbidden, but going home by public transport on your own is not allowed either. If the patient starts to feel unwell at home, she or he must be able to call help. A controlled and monitored stay at the BERLIN-KLINIK ward is usually safer for you.


Are costs for dental treatment under anaesthesia assumed by the health insurance?

Answer: The costs for anaesthesia are only assumed by the health insurance in case of certain rare indications. Indications are currently patients with mental disabilities, children under 12 years who will not permit treatment otherwise, and patients who do not tolerate dentist's local anaesthetics or who are allergic to them, and in whom this has been documented by a specialist. In individual cases, excessive gag reflex in the scope of dental treatment may be accepted as an exception that warrants general anaesthesia. However, this must be reviewed from case to case and approved by health insurance in writing. Private insurance will only assume costs for general anaesthetic if they are justified and contractually agreed on.


What is the difference between sedation by the dentist and anaesthesia at BERLIN-KLINIK?

Answer: Analgo sedation means that you do not sleep! You will be awake and responsive, but the medication will cause deep relaxation to the point of retrograde amnesia. You will still be able to perceive pain, so that the dentist must inject local anaesthetic. Sedation is only permitted if monitored by an anaesthetist because the medication administered may lead to respiratory depression. Breathing on your own may be a problem during dental treatment and there is the definite danger of inhaling something, which is a very severe complication. During general anaesthetic, you are deeply asleep. Pain perception is completely gone due to the medication and additional local anaesthesia is not absolutely required. Treatment may take up to several hours if required. You will not be able to swallow or inhale anything.


Are fear or phobia of the dentist a disease?

Answer: Dentist phobia is defined as a disease (ICD 10, 40.2, an anxiety disorder). Among others, fear causes you to more or less lose focus and control of your rationally controlled action, the pulse frequency rises and motor skills reduce as well as the ability to think rationally. You may lose control of your bowels or bladder. Among others, measurable biochemical processes will occur. All in all, this is a condition in which rational behaviours or decisions are not possible, or only with limitation. Sedatives will not help or help only little. A person suffering from dentist phobia has a disease and requires medical help.


What makes a "Specialist for dentist phobia"?    

Answer: Some say: emotional intelligence, special communicative skills and the ability to cooperate. In bitter reality of the advertising outward presentation, it's more like: unscrupulous business skills, hypocrisy and moderate quality of dental treatment as such. Fear is and has always been something some people have "specialised" in to make great business. They use fear and lack of information for their own benefit. It is particularly negative if these self-proclaimed "specialists for dental phobia" claim that other dentists are unable to treat patients suffering from dentist phobia with the aid of an anaesthetist.


What is a "Specialist for dentist phobia"?

Answer: There are certainly laudable exceptions. However. advertising with this "specialisation" means a dentist who had little success in patients who are awake and mature. Dentists who have only achieved medium-quality and little representative success may have turned to the much more lucrative sleeping fear patients at some point. They can perform very comprehensive treatments that are often far too expensive as compared to the quality of the dental medicine provided. It is worst in those cases where dentists specialising in treatment of dentist phobia patients are commercially organised on a commercial-organisational level.



FAQ - Hyaluronic acid Therapy in Germany

Can or should Hyaluronic acid therapy be combined with Botox therapy at BERLIN KLINIK ?

Answer: Yes often it is! Both therapies are complementary and can therefore be combined very successfully. Hyaluronic acid and Botox are also used to complete and perfect the results of BERLIN KLINIK plastic-aesthetic surgery and aesthetic dentistry.


What is a dermafiller?

Answer: Dermafiller literally means skin-filler, i.e. small 'valleys' / wrinkles of the skin are mechanically filled so that the skin is slightly elevated to smooth out the wrinkle. Hyaluronic acid compounds are currently the most frequently used dermafillers. Used to complete and perfect the results of BERLIN KLINIK plastic-aesthetic surgery and aesthetic dentistry.


What is Hyaluronic acid?

Answer: Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring body substance. It is a glycosaminoglycan that constitutes an important part of the conjunctive tissue and hydrates the skin. Sufficient hydration of the skin provides volume. The naturally occurring hyaluronic acid is constantly being synthesised and broken down by the body and therefore continuously being replaced. With age the new formation of hyaluronic acid reduces steadily and with it also its hydrating and volume enhancing effect. Hyaluronic acid is being used regularly in the aesthetic-plastic surgery, orthopaedics, and ophthalmology. It is used to complete and perfect the results of BERLIN KLINIK plastic-aesthetic surgery and aesthetic dentistry.


What does a therapy with hyaluronic acid cost?

Answer: The costs of a hyaluronic acid therapy at the BERLIN-KLINIK Aesthetic Surgery Dep. depend on the effort and intensity of the procedure. The replenishment costs of stark, deep, and static wrinkles are considerably higher than the costs of replenishment of subtle mimic wrinkles.


Is the treatment with hyaluronic acid painful?

Answer: It might be a little bit uncomfortable since an injection can never really be deemed comfortable. However, the skin is locally anaesthetised or the compound contains a local anaesthesia.


Will I see a difference immediately?

Answer: Yes, the aesthetic result is immediately visible. You will see the result already shortly after the treatment.


Will I need to take leave for the hyaluronic acid treatment at the BERLIN-KLINIK Aesthetics Dep.?

Answer: No! Hyaluronic acid therapy can be done during a lunch break. Unless you work with very demanding public business, you will be able to resume your normal working day after the treatment. If you do, the treatment should be carried out before one or two free days or just before your weekend.


Are there any side effects of hyaluronic acid?

Answer: You might experience slight discolouring, reddening, or bruises and swelling in the treated facial area. However, the potential side effects will not last for very long and can easily be hidden with make-up. However, you will only be able to apply make-up 12 hours after treatment. Further, all therapies in which injections are placed below the skin carry an infection risk. You can receive a full list of all possible side effects upon request during your consultation.


How long will the effects of hyaluronic acid therapy last?

Answer: This varies widely between individuals. It depends like all therapies on a number of other factors such as age, general health, skin type, life style / habits, smoking, medication, pre-treatments. In the ideal case a treatment will last up to 12 months.



FAQ - Rhinoplasty Berlin Klinik

In which age should a rhinoplasty be carried out?

Answer: The BERLIN-KLINIK plastic surgery team is advising a rhinoplasty from the age of 18 when bone structure of the face has fully matured.


Will the scars after a rhinoplasty at the BERLIN-KLINIK be visible?

Answer: In general and provided good wound healing disposition hardly any remnants of the operation will be visible from the outside. The scars in the nose interior will not be visible and the scar at the nasal columnella normally fades with time.


What does a nose correction mean?

Answer: An open nose operation in contrast to a closed nose correction means that a surgical procedure with a cut through the external skin of the nose is carried out. With good wound healing disposition the scars are hardly or not visible.


When will I be able to work again?

Answer: With procedures in the face it very much depends upon whether you work with clients or in an office without external contact. Dependent on the type of work you can do light activities after a couple of days, but should only resume strenuous bodily activity after 2-3 weeks or after removal of the bandage.


Is the removal of the nasal tamponades very painful?

Answer: The Nasal- and jaw tamponades can prior to removal be moistened under local anaesthesia. However, this procedure is indeed uncomfortable and at times painful.


Why don't you have before-after images of implants on the BERLIN-KLINIK homepage?

Answer: According to german law to protect the patients the comparative display of appearance before and after treatment outside expert groups must not be used for advertising purposes. Spirit and purpose of the law (§ 11 No. 5 b HWG Law on Advertising in the Health Care System) is to mitigate and prevent deception and irrelevant, suggestive manipulation of medical laymen.


Is it still possible to still see before-after pictures of a similar implant operation like it is planned for me?

Answer: Reliant on many years of scientific documentation of operations and therapies and the results of thousands of surgeries and treatments all BERLIN-KLINIK Plastic Surgery Dep. doctors can in your personal consultation show you pictures that are exemplary of a potential result for you.


Will you produce a computer-simulation with before-after pictures for me at the BERLIN-KLINIK Plastic Surgery Department?

Answer: No, the reason being that computer-simulations especially in the face can regularly result in false expectations that the surgeon will not be able to fulfil as such.



FAQ - breast implants Berlin

What kind of implant types exist and how do they differ?

Answer: There are round and drop-shaped anatomic implants. The round shaped implants look a little artificial, whereas the anatomic ones usually shape the breast more naturally. BERLIN KLINIK Plastic Surgery Department uses the more natural looking and more stable ones. For your natural outcome and safety.


Is it better to implant onto the breast muscle or underneath the breast muscle?

Answer: In the case of very skinny women we are recommending to place the implant underneath the muscle. If there is enough existing tissue the implant can also be placed onto the muscle.


Do implants have to really be changed every ten years?

Answer: No, not necessarily. Modern silicon gel implants can often remain life-long in the breast.


What size is the right implant size? How big should the breasts be?

Answer: Anatomy, individual sizes as well as the position of the breast nipples dictate the preconditions for the size of the implants. Approximately 150-200 ccm usually achieve one additional cup size.


Can silicon gel implants burst under pressure, tear or explode on a plane?

Answer: No, implants by reputable producers can neither burst nor leak. They are formed out of solid gel.


Can silicon implants cause illnesses?

Answer: No, the risk of breast cancer, rheumatism, and autoimmune illnesses is not heightened.


Why don't you have before-after images of implants on the BERLIN-KLINIK Plastic Surgery homepage?

Answer: According to law the comparative display of appearance before and after treatment outside expert groups must not be used for advertising purposes. Spirit and purpose of the law (§ 11 No. 5 b HWG Law on Advertising in the Health Care System) is to mitigate and prevent deception and irrelevant, suggestive manipulation of medical laymen.


Is it still possible to still see before-after pictures of a similar implant operation like it is planned for me?

Answer: Reliant on many years of scientific documentation of operations and therapies and the results of thousands of surgeries and treatments all BERLIN-KLINIK Plastic Surgery Dep. doctors can in your personal consultation show you pictures that are exemplary of a potential result for you.


How long should I book my leave of absence for?

Answer: Light activities are possible after 3-4 days, harder activities after one week. Strenuous bodily activity or sports is possible after 4 weeks.


Can I get pregnant and breastfeed after a breast augmentation?

Answer: Yes you should, the implant does not influence the ability to breastfeed.


Can a mammography be carried out after a breast augmentation?

Answer: yes, experienced radiologists can carry out all preventive examinations like mammography or sonography.


Can a breast augmentation also be carried out under local anaesthesia?

Answer: Yes, also the BERLIN-KLINIKPlastic Surgery Dep. regularly carries out breast augmentations without general anaesthesia.


Which alternatives are there to an operation with silicon implants?

Answer: Macrolane-gel, Hyaluron-gel or endogenous fat transplants as well as saline implants common on Europe exist. However, due to therapy safety concerns none of these variants is offered at the BERLIN-KLINIK Plastic Surgery Department.



FAQ - lip enhancements BERLIN-KLINIK Plastic Surgery Department

Will my lips look artificial after a lip injection?

Answer: No, if a reasonable amount of hyaluronic acid is injected this will not be the case.


How long will the results of full lips last?

Answer: Dependent on individual situation and lifestyle habits the results will last up to a year.


Can both upper and lower lip be treated at the same time?

Answer: Yes, both lips can be treated simultaneously.


Which material is safe for a lip enhancement?

Answer: Hyaluronic acid is natural, does not cause knots and feels authentic.


Is a lip enhancement very painful?

Answer: No, local anaesthesia similar to the one used at the dentist is used.


How many stitches are needed for a lip enhancement?

Answer: As required approximately 1-3 sutures are needed.


Which other alternatives are there for a lip enhancement?

Answer: Lip enhancements with endogenous fat or strips of skin are alternatives to hyaluronic acid.



Dental Lexicon

Here you find a little dental lexicon that should help you to understand some technical medical and dental terms. This lexicon is definitely not complete. If you are interested in any other word please email it to us and we will integrate it into the lexicon if it is from public interest. Enjoy reading and get some information:







ABSCESS - a local infection. A Severe decay, periodontal disease, or trauma are causative factors. It is characterized by swelling and pain. If an abscess ruptures, it will be accompanied by sudden relief from pain due to a reduction in ssure. A foul taste may also be noticed.

ABUTMENT - a technical part of a dental Implant. Carries the crown. Made of titanium or ceramic

ACRYLIC RESIN - the polymer plastic widely used in dentistry to make dentures.

ACTIVE ERUPTION - the emergence of the tooth from its position in the jaw.

ADHESION - the sticking together of unlike substances

ADJUSTMENT - a modification made upon a dental prosthesis after it has been completed and inserted into the mouth.

AEROBIC BACTERIA - bacteria which grow in oxygen rich environments; in the oral cavity the bacteria are found outside the sulcus.

AFFERENT - nerves that carry sensory messages toward the brain.

AGAR - a gelatin like substance obtained from seaweed; used in impression materials.

ALGINATE - an impression material used by dentists for making stone models.

ALVEOLECTOMY - an operation where portions of the alveolar bone are removed.

ALVEOLAR BONE - part of jawbone the bone surrounding the root of the tooth; loss of this bone is typically associated with severe periodontal disease.

ALVEOLAR CREST - the highest portion of alveolar bone.

ALVEOLAR EMINENCE - outline of the root on the facet portion of the bone.

ALVEOLAR PROCESS - the portion of the mandible or maxilla that surrounds the root of a tooth.

ALVEOLUS - the bony socket in which the root of the tooth sits.

AMALGAM - or silver filling; an alloy in which one of the metals is mercury. Below are the approximate percentages of the component

ANAEROBIC BACTERIA - bacteria that do not need oxygen to grow; they are generally associated with periodontal disease. They destroy bone and can cause very serious health problems in different body parts like lungs and brain.

ANODONTIA - the developmental absence of teeth.

ANTIBIOTIC - substance produced by or derived from bacteria which is able to inhibit or kill other bacteria.

ANTIMICROBIAL - destroying or inhibiting the growth of bacteria.

ANATOMICAL CROWN - the portion of the tooth that is covered with enamel.

ANTISCEPTIC - A chemical agent which can be applied to living tissues to destroy germs.

ANESTHESIA - medication which relieves the sensation of pain and also sometimes stop bleeding for operation in gums and bones when containing Adrenalin/Corticonephrin

ANNIVERSARY YEAR - begins on the day of the month that the patients' insurance became effective.

ANOMALY - a deviation from the normal or expected outcome.

ANTAGONIST - a structure that opposes or counteracts another structure.

ANTERIOR - situated in front of.

ANTERIOR TEETH - the front teeth incisors and cupids.

ANUG - Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis. An acute, painful condition characterized by severe gingival redness, spontaneous bleeding, foul breath and pain.

APEX - the pointed extremity of a structure.

APICAL FORAMEN - the opening at the end of the root of a tooth through which the tooth receives its nerve and blood supply.

APPOSITION - the laying down of, or addition of.

ARCH - a curvature; both the maxillary and mandibular ridge form a horseshoe shaped arch.

ARTICULATING PAPER - carbon paper; placed between the upper and lower teeth to mark contact.

ARTICULATOR - a mechanical device used to replicate functional movements of the jaw to casts.

ASSIGNMENT OF BENEFITS - a clause in an insurance policy that allows the insured person to direct the carrier's payment to the dentist.

ASPIRATOR - The tube-like straw which the dentist place in your mouth for suction.

ASYMMETRY/ SYMMETRY - To be esthetic, tooth Size, shape and gum contour should be as close to identical from one side of the mouth to the other. Ideally, the incisal edges of your teeth should follow the contour of the upper lip.

ATTACHMENT LEVEL - a numerical measure of the amount of attachment of the periodontal ligament to a tooth; the number is generally determined by combining a pocket depth measurement with a measurement of gingival recession. Attachment level is considered one of the most important measures of periodontal disease progress or treatment success

ATTRITION - the wearing away of tooth structure through normal use (ie. chewing, biting, etc.).

AXON - the anatomical nerve structure that carries impulses away from the cell body of a nerve.



BICUSPIDS - or having two cusps. The first and second bicuspids; they are the fourth and fifth teeth from the center of the mouth, respectively. These are the back teeth that are used for chewing.

BIFURCATION - having two branches, or dividing into two parts.

BILATERAL - both sides.

BITEWING - a single X-ray that shows the upper and lower teeth's biting surfaces on the same film.

BLEACHING - cosmetic whitening of teeth using peroxide different concentrations and different measurements.

BOLUS - chewed up mass of food and saliva.

BONDING - the covering of a tooth surface to correct stained or damaged teeth.

BONE GROWTH FACTOR (PRP) – concentrate of patients blood called platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and is descended from blood platelets, thrombocytes

BRIDGE - a fixed appliance (prosthesis) that replaces missing teeth. A bridge is a series of attached crowns (abutments and pontics).

BRUXISM - or the grinding of teeth, usually occurs during sleep. Can cause serious damage of teeth and joints. Also headache.

BUCCAL - or pertaining to the cheek.

BUCCINATOR MUSCLE - the cheek muscle.


CALCIFICATION - the process of hardening through the deposition of lime salts.

CALCULUS - hard calcium like deposits which form on teeth and dentures.

CANAL - the narrow chamber inside the root of a tooth that contains nerve tissue and blood vessels.

CANINES - See CUSPIDS; so named because the correspond to the long teeth of a dog.

CARIOGENIC - or caries-causing

CARIES - medical term for decay; caused by decalcification of the enamel and disintegration of the dentin by acid producing bacteria.

CAST - reproduction of the mouth in stone or plaster. Necessary for dental technichian and also for demonstration modelst like a waxup to help to understand therapies or situations


CEMENT - a dental material used to seal inlays, onlays, and crowns; also used for pupal protection.

CEMENTUM - makes up the dull yellow outer surface of the roots.

CENTRIC OCCLUSION - the relationship of the occlusal surfaces of one arch to those in the opposing arch at physical rest position.

CENTRIC RELATION - the relationship of the maxillary arch to the mandibular arch when the condyle is in its most retracted position.

CERVICAL - pertaining to the neck of a tooth.

CERVIX - the neck of the tooth; the area where the crown joins the root or the enamel joins the cementum.

CHEEK POUCH - the area of the mouth inside the cheek.

CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC - an agent of a chemical nature which exerts an antimicrobial effect.

CINGULUM - a raised area on the lingual surface of anterior teeth.

CLASP - the metal part of a partial denture and which helps to retain, support, and stabilize the appliance.

CLEANING ot teeth and implants - See PROPHYLAXIS.

CLEFT PALATE - an opening in the palate.

CLINICAL CROWN - that portion of the tooth visible in the mouth, extending from the occlusal or incisal edge to the crest of the free gingiva.

CLOSED PANEL - a plan where the covered patient only receives benefits if the services are provided by a dentist contracted with the plan's administrator.

COL - a "V-shaped depression in the facial-lingual interdental papilla located cervically to the contact area of the tooth.

COMMUNITION - crushing or grinding to a powder.


COMPOSITE FILLING - tooth-colored restorative material. The word "composite" refers to the mixture of filler particles in a liquid resin. Commonly, the resin used is BIS-GMA (bis-gammamethylmetacrylate). Filler particles are added to alter the color and wear characteristics. Common filler particles are silica, aluminum, zinc, tin, copper and iron.

CONCAVE - curving inward away from the viewer.

CONTACT AREA - that portion of the proximal surface of a tooth that touches the adjacent tooth.

CONVEX - curving outward toward the viewer.

COSMETIC DENTISTRY - aesthetic improvement of the color,size and shape of teeth performed by a general dentist or an aesthetic dentistry specialist.

CREST - a prominence or ridge.

CROSS CONTAMINATION - Passing disease indirectly from one patient to another.

CROWN - full coverage for a tooth (used when the tooth cannot be restored by a filling). Materials: Metal, Gold, Ceramic covered Metals or Full Ceramic, Zirkonoxid

CURETTAGE – Important periodontal procedure the surgical scraping of bacteria from soft tissue.

CUSPID - the third tooth from the center of the mouth towards the back, also known as canines.

CUSPS - elevated points on the chewing surfaces of back teeth (posterior teeth).

CUSTOM TRAY - an individual tray; custom made to fit a patient's mouth.


DEBRIDEMENT - treatment of a bacterial infection by removing irritants (bacteria, calculus) from the periodontal pocket so as to allow healing of adjacent tissues.

DECALCIFICATION - The loss of calcium from your teeth, weakening the teeth and making them more susceptible to decay

DECIDUOUS TEETH - baby teeth; teeth that exfoliate or shed. see PRIMARY TEETH.

DEDUCTIBLE - the amount paid by the patient before the carrier begins benefit payments.

DEGLUTITION - swallowing.

DEMINERALIZATION - loss of mineral from tooth enamel just below the surface in a carious lesion; usually appearing as a white area on the tooth surface.

DENDRITE - the process that conducts impulses toward the cell body of a nerve.

DENTAL IMPLANT-artificial root to replace a tooth. Materials: Titanium and Zirkonoxyd. In many different variations of use and technical type.

DENTAL RESIN - a dental material applied to the tooth which is used in cases of severe dentinal hypersensitivity; usually not used unless all other treatment attempts have failed.

DENTAL VARNISH - a hypersensitivity treatmentwhich sometimes contains sodium fluoride; applied to the tooth surface, covering the outer surface of dentin and thus blocking transmission of stimuli to the pulp.

DENTIN - the hard, yellowish tissue underlying the enamel and cementum; it makes up the major bulk of the tooth.

DENTINAL TUBULES - microscopic canals that run from the outside of the dentin to the nerve inside the tooth.

DENTITION - the natural teeth as a unit.

DENTURE - a removable appliance (prosthesis) that replaces missing teeth in either the upper or lower jaw.

DESENSITIZATION - the blocking of painful stimuli which cause dentinal hypersensitivity. Different chemical supstances which should close the anatomic micro tubes

DESICCATE - to make dry; to remove all moisture.

DESQUAMATION - a peeling of gingival tissue; in cases of desquamative gingivitis, the tissues may appear smooth and shiny, with patches of bright red and gray. Surface tissue may peel away, exposing a raw, bleeding, painful surface.

DEVELOPMENTAL DEPRESSION - a concavity in a surface that formed while the tooth was developing.

DIAGNOSIS - the process of identifying the nature of a disorder. Therapy should follow diagnostics.

DIAGNOSTIC - procedures performed by the dentist to identify what's going on in the mouth.

DIASTEMA - a space between the teeth.

DILACERATION - an abnormal tooth that where both the crown and the root are twisted.

DIPHYODONT - having two successive sets of teeth.

DIRECT CONTAMINATION - Direct contact with impurities or germs.

DISINFECTION - Cleaning process which destroys the majority of microorganism, but not highly resistant forms such as bacterial and mycotic spores.

DISINFECTANT - Chemical agent which is applied onto surfaces to destroy bacteria and viruses. Maybe surfaces of environment but also surfaces like skin and wounds.

DISPOSABLE MATERIALS - materials intended for one-use / one-way and discarded. (e.g.: Gloves, paper gowns, cotton rolls, etc.)

DISTAL - the surface of the tooth farthest from the midline of the dental arch.


EDEMA - swelling resulting from fluid accumulation in gingival tissues.

EDENTULOUS - having no teeth.

EFFERENT - the nerves that carry motor messages away from the brain.

EMBRASURE - the space between two teeth created by the sloping away of the mesial and distal surfaces.

EMINENCE - a prominence.

EMPRESS - Type of porcelain crown and porcelain veneer/laminate. The advantage Empress is that it blends very nicely with the surrounding teeth; it is very esthetic.

ENAMEL - the hard, white shiny surface of the natural dental crown; composed of 95% calcium hydroxyapatite.

ENDODONTICS (ENDO) - the treatment of diseases or injuries that affect the root tip or nerve of the tooth.

EROSION - The dissolution of tooth structure due to the presence of gastric juices or citrus. Erosion seldom occurs alone; it is often accompanied by attrition or abrasion (or both) to varying degrees. Acidic foods, such as citrus fruits and juices should be avoid in patients with signs of erosion.

ERUPTION - the moving of the tooth occlusally.

EXCLUSION - services not covered by a dental plan.

EXFOLIATE - to shed.

EXPLORER - a probe used to detect cavity growth.

EXTERNAL - on the outer surface.

EXTRACTION - the removal of teeth.

EXTRAORAL - Outside the mouth.


FACIAL - the surface next to the face; the outer surface of a tooth resting against the cheeks or lips.

FILTRUM - the dimple or indentation under the nose directly above the upper lip.

FISSURE - cleft-like grooves in the chewing surface of the molar teeth.

FISTULA - an abnormal passage formed in the gum tissue through which an abscessed tooth drains.

FLUORIDE - topical application of a gel or liquid that prevents decay.

FLUOROSIS - discoloration of the enamel due to excessive fluoride absorption (greater than one 1 part per million) into the bloodstream, also called enamel mottling.

FORAMEN - an opening in bone.

FORNEX - vault or arch shaped.

FOSSA - a shallow depression on the lingual (tongue) surfaces of some front teeth.

FREE GINGIVA - the marginal part of the gingival (gums) that can be deflected from the tooth surface; it forms a collar around the tooth.

FRENUM - a fold of mucous membrane that connects two parts.


FULL MOUTH X-RAYS - X-rays showing all theteeth. Includes 14 periapicals and 4 bitewings, also known as a complete series.

FUNCTION ANALYSIS (FAL) - Clinical and instrumental function analysis is a part of TMJ Diagnostics and therapy toanalyse the interaction between temporomandibular joint and masticationmuscles. In order to plan and to manufacture dental appliances he needs repeatable diagnostic information about the position of your jaws in relation to your skull.

FURCATION - an area where the root divides.

FURROW - a groove.


GENERAL ANAESTHESIA for very complex treatments or patients who are scared of dental and surgical treatment BERLIN KLINIK offers to receive all treatments under total anaesthesia (TIVA).

GINGIVITIS - Inflammation of the gums caused by metabolites of plaque bacteria. The most important feature of gingivitis is red and swollen gum tissue that bleeds quickly during external mechanical influences such as tooth brushing.

GLOSSITIS – Rare inflammation of the mucous membrane of the tongue

GRINDING – Form of Bruxism to gnash the teeth, mostly unconsciously clenching or rubbing the lower and upper jaw together, typically during sleep. May cause serious damages on teeth and jaw joints

GUM -  from latin: gingiva, tissue that surrounds the bases of teeth, the dental roots, and is connected to the oral mucous membrane, which is paler


HANDPIECE - the instrument used to hold and revolve burs in dental operations.

HEAT-STERILIZING - Use of an autoclave or dry-heat sterilizer to kill all potential disease-causing agents that remain following patient treatment. Any instruments that is not heat stable and cannot tolerate high temperatures should be thoroughly cleaned and soaked in disinfectant chemicals.

HETERODONT - different types of teeth within the same dentition (ie. incisors, canines, molars).

HISTO-DIFFERENTIATION - development into a specialized tissue.

HISTOLOGY - the microscopic science of gums and tissues.

HOMODONT - the presence of only one type of tooth in the dentition.

HYPERPLASIA - over-growth of tissue gum or bone an increase in the number of cells.

HYPERSENSITIVITY - a sharp, sudden painful reaction in teeth when exposed to hot, cold, chemical, mechanical or osmotic (sweet or salty) stimuli.


IDEAL OCCLUSION - a complete harmonious relationship of the teeth and masticatory system.

IMMEDIATE DENTURE - a complete or partial denture made before the natural teeth are extracted.

IMPACTION - an unerupted or partially erupted tooth that will not fully erupt into the mouth because of an obstruction.

IMPLANT – artificial root  implanted into bone. A crown, bridge, or denture is then placed over the implant to restore function and esthetics.

IMPRESSION TRAY - formed in the general shapeof the mouth, used for taking impressions.

INCENTIVE PROGRAM - a dental plan where the percentage of benefits increase each year as the patient receives regular,annual dental care (preventive treatment). If the patient fails to go to the dentist each year, the percentage drops back to where it started.

INCISORS - the central and lateral incisors;the first and second teeth from the midline of the mouth.

INLAY - a gold, porcelain, or composite filling made individually by a dental technician cemented into the tooth. If it covers the tips of the teeth, it is called an onlay. The best possible restauration of a dental defect.

INCISAL EDGE - the cutting edge, ridge, or surface of anterior teeth.

INSERTION –anatomic: the movable end of a muscle, technic: drilling of a dental implant

INTERCUSPIDATION - interlocking; a cusp-to-fossa relation of the maxillary to mandibular teeth.

INTERPROXIMAL - the space between two adjacent surfaces.

INTRAORAL - Inside your mouth. .

INVISALIGN - The system is a way to move teeth without the use of conventional brackets and archwires. Basically, a series ofclear plastic trays are computer fabricated with each tray gradually shifting the teeth into proper alignment. The system works best for minor tooth movements.

IONTOPHORESIS - the process of introducing adrug through the dental enamel by use of an electrical current; often used in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

IRRIGATION - the technique of using a solution to wash out your mouth.


JAW - a common name for the maxillar or mandibular jaw bones.



LABIAL - relating to the lip; another name for the facial surface of anterior teeth (next to the lip).

LAMINATE VENEER - a porcelain, or composite covering which is bonded to restore discolored, or damaged teeth.

LATERA L - to the side.

LEAST COST ALTERNATIVE - an insurance policy clause that allows the insuring company to pay for the least expensive treatment.

LESION - any wound or local degeneration.

LINGUAL - the surface of a tooth nearest the tongue; relating to the tongue.

LOBE - center of tooth formation.

LOCAL ANESTHESIA - relieves the sensation of pain in a localized area and stops bleeding if added Adrenalin or another vasoconstrictor


MALOCCLUSION - any deviation from the ideal positioning of the teeth or jaws.

MAMELON - small elevations of enamel present on the incisors as they erupt.

MANAGED CARE PLANS - plans that restrict the type, level, and frequency of treatment; these plans limit access to care and control the level of service reimbursement (ie. DMO's, Capitation plans, and Closed Panel plans).

MANDIBLE - the lower jaw bone.

MARYLAND BRIDGE – Aesthetic dentistry therapy type of Bonded Bridge. Its main difference from conventional bridges is in the reduced amount of abutment preparation necessary. Only the lingual surfaces of the abutments are reduced.

MASTICATION - chewing.

MASTICATORY SYSTEM - the teeth and surrounding structures: jaws, temporomandibular joint, muscles, lips, and tongue.

MAXILLAE - the upper jaw.

MEDIAL - relating to the middle or medial plane.

MENTAL - relating to the chin.

MERCURY - a metal, component of amalgam fillings.

MESIAL - is the surface of the tooth nearest the midline of the dental arch.

MICRO ABRASION - a drill-free technique using an instrument resembling a tiny sand blaster that delivers tiny aluminum oxide particles to the surface of teeth.

MIDLINE - imaginary line through the middle of an object which divides it into two equal parts.

MIXED DENTITION - The developmental stage when both deciduous and permanent teeth are present.

MOLAR - the first, second and third molars; these are the sixth, seventh and eighth teeth from the center of the mouth, respectively.

MOUTHGUARD - a soft-fitted device which protects teeth against bruxism, impact or injury.

MUCOSA - the thin, outer pink or red membrane lining the inside of the oral cavity.


NASAL - relating to the nose.

NEURON - a nerve cell.

NEOPLASM - a proliferation of cells
interfering with surrounding tissues; refers to cancer.

NICOTINE PATCHES - typically worn for 24 hoursover several weeks, supplying a steady flow of nicotine. The main brands include: Habitrol, Nicoderm, Nicotrol and Prostep. Over the course of treatment the amount of nicotine in the patch gradually decreases. Studies have shown that this method has approximately a 25 % success rate.

NIGHTGUARD - a removable acrylic appliance to minimize the effects of grinding (bruxism) and TMJ associated problems.

NON PREP VENEER – see porcelain veneer. Ultrathin ceramic layer for aesthetic dental therapies.


ORTHOPANTHOMOGRAMM - panorama overview x-ray showing both jawbones and all teeth.

OSTEOBLAST – The Bbone producing and reconstructive cells. Very important for Alloplastic bone replacement.

OSTEOCLASTS – bone cells their function is the breakdown and resorption of bone tissue. Very important for Alloplastic bone replacement.

OSTEOCYTE – the mature bone cells name


PALATE - roof of the mouth.

PALATAL SURFACE - the surface of the maxillaryteeth nearest the palate.

PALMER'S NOTATION - An identification system for teeth; widely used to designate individual teeth amongst orthodontists.

PANOREX - a single, large x-ray taken outside of the mouth that shows all the teeth on one film.

PARTIAL DENTURE - a removable appliance that replaces some of the teeth in either the upper or lower jaw.

PASSIVE ERUPTION - describes the process by which teeth continue to erupt into the mouth as tooth structure is lost to attrition and wear.

PATHOGEN - Disease producing organism

PATHOLOGY - The science of abnormal (diseased) tissue conditions.

PEDODONTICS (PEDO) - the treatment of children's teeth.

PELLICLE - the first step in plaque formation; a clear, thin covering containing proteins and lipids (fats) found in saliva. It is formed within seconds after a tooth surface is cleaned.

PERIAPICAL - an x-ray that shows the whole tooth, also known as a single film or P.A.

PERIAPICAL ABSCESS - infection of the pulp of the tooth and tissues surrounding the base of the tooth.

PERICORONITIS - infection of the tissue overlying a partially erupted tooth. Treatment involves keeping this tissue clean and free of bacteria.

PERIIMPLANTITIS - periodontal disease of the tissues gum and bone surrounding a dental implant. May cause the loss of the dental implant. Needs professional therapy.

PERIODONTAL CHARTING - measures the pocket depth resulting from attachment loss between the gums and teeth.

PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT - the fibers which suspend the tooth in the bony socket; it is attached at one end to the cementum, and at the other end to the alveolar bone of the socket.

PERIODONTAL MAINTENANCE - cleaning of the teeth following periodontal treatment, includes perio charting.

PERIODONTAL POCKET - the pocket that forms when the gums lose attachment from the teeth.

PERIODONTAL PROBE - a dental instrument used to measure pocket depth.

PERIODONTAL PROPHY - see Periodontal Maintenance.

PERIODONTAL RECALL - see Periodontal Maintenance.

PERIODONTICS (PERIO) – the science of treatment of diseases of the teeth sorrounding tissues like gum.

PERIODONTIST –specialised dentist scientificly reports, diagnoses and treats diseases of the tissues supporting and surrounding the teeth, especially periodontal, gum, disease

PERIODONTITIS - a form of periodontal disease affecting adults resulting in destruction of alveolar bone.

PERIODONTIUM - the structures that surround and support the teeth.


PERMANENT TEETH - the teeth that replace the deciduous or primary teeth.

PHONETICS - production of sounds.

PIT - a pinpoint depression in the occlusal surface od a tooth.

PLAQUE - a sticky film that accumulated on teeth. Plaque is the basis of periodontitis and other periodontal diseases.

PLASTER OF PARIS - gypsum, used to make models of teeth.

POLISHING – part of professional prophylaxis dental procedure that removes stain, plaque and acquired pellicle by using an abrasive polishing paste in a rubber cup attached to a slow-speed handpiece.

POLYPHYODONT - possessing several sets ofteeth during a lifespan.

PONTIC - the component of a bridge that replaces the missing teeth.

PORCELAIN - a tooth-colored sand like material; much like enamel in appearance.

PORCELAIN VENEER - ultra-thin shells of ceramic material bonded to the front of the tooth.

POSTERIOR TEETH - the back teeth (Bicuspids and molars).

POSTPALATAL SEAL - an elevation of material on the back (tissue side) of a denture; for the purpose of sealing the denture.


PREDETERMINATION - the doctor notifies the insurance company beforehand of the intended treatment and the insurance company estimates the benefits that will be paid.Â

PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATION (PPO) - A planwhere the patient can go to any dentist they choose, or they can choose a preferred dentist and receive discounted fees. These plans are listed on our system as Preferred and Non Preferred.

PREMOLARS - two-cusped teeth immediately in front of molars.

PREVENTIVE - a procedure performed to aid in preventing decay and/ or gum disease.

PRIMARY PLAN - when a patient is covered by two insurance plans, the plan that is billed first is the primary plan.

PRIMARY TEETH - the baby teeth, also known as the primary dentition.

PRIMATE SPACING - the normal spacing between primary anterior teeth.

PROCERA - Procera is a technical type of Porcelain Crown. They are one of the strongest all-porcelain crowns available. Procera's framework is computer generated; porcelain is then added to the structure.


PROPHYLAXIS – professional teeth and gum cleaning also a general meaning to clean the teeth, also known as a prophy.

PROSTHETICS - a fixed or removable appliance used to replace missing teeth (ie. bridges, partials, and dentures).

PROSTHODONTIST – specialised dentist constructs artificial appliances designed to restore and maintain oral function by replacing missing teeth and other oral structures such as dentures

PROXIMAL - nearest the point of attachment; the mesial or distal surface of the tooth.

PROXIMAL SURFACE - the surface of the tooth adjacent to the next tooth; refers to the mesial and distal surfaces.

PUBLIC HEALTH DENTIST - concerned with the dental health needs of entire communities, and can design and administer large-scale prevention and dental care programs by compiling and analyzing statistics

PULP CANAL - the portion/channel system of the pulp inside the root.

PULP CHAMBER - the portion of the pulp in the crown of the tooth.

PULP HORN - the portion of the pulp chamber that extends towards the cusp.

PULP TISSUE - the soft (not calcified) tissue in the pulp chamber; composed of blood vessels and nerves.


QUADRANT - denotes one of four equal sections in the mouth. The upper right, upper left, lower right or the lower left.


RADIOGRAPHIC - referring to x-rays.

RADIOSURGERY - surgical technique that uses radio waves to produce a pressureless, bloodless incision.

RAPHE - a union of soft tissue.

RCT – Endodontics see ROOT CANAL THERAPY.

REBASE - process where only the tissue surface of a denture is replaced by new material.

RELATIVE VALUE SCHEDULE (RVS) - procedures are given a point value based upon their degree of difficulty. Each procedure is also assigned a given a dollar amount. The dollar amount is then multiplied by the point value to determine what the insurance company will pay.


RESORB - to dissolve into the tissue.

RESTORATIONS - any replacement for lost tooth structure or teeth (ie. bridges, fillings, crowns and implants).

RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY - process of restoring missing, damaged or diseased teeth to normal form and function.

RETAINER - a removable appliance used to maintain teeth in a given position (usually worn at night).

RIDGE - a linear elevation.

ROOT CANAL THERAPY / TREATMENT (RCT) -procedure used to save an abscessed tooth in which the pulp chamber is cleaned out, disinfected, and filled with a permanent filling.

ROOT PLANING - the removal of hard deposits from the root surface below the gumline.

ROOT TRUNK - that portion of the root that isnot bifurcated or trifurcated.

RUGAE - elevated folds or wrinkles of soft tissue in the front part of the palate.


SAGITTAL PLANE - An imaginary longitudinal vertical plane that divides the mouth into two halves (left and right.)

SCALING - scraping of the tooth above the gums.

SEALANTS - the application of a clear resin over the biting surfaces of teeth to prevent decay.

SECONDARY PLAN - when a patient is insured by two plans, the plan that is billed second is the secondary plan.

SIGNATURE ON FILE - the insured person signs a form stating that the payments made by the carrier go to the dentist. This form expires 1 year from the date it is signed.


SLOUGHING - a condition in which the gingival tissue deadens and peels away from the living tissue.

SOCKET - a cavity in the bone, see ALVEOLUS.

SOFT PALATE - the back 1/3 of the roof of the mouth composed of soft tissue.

SOMATIC - nerves that supply muscles.

SONICARE - a type of electric toothbrush. Vibrates at over 31,000 brush strokes per minute. Most models offer a 3 - minute timer to let you know when you're done.

SPACE MAINTAINER - A dental appliance used to maintain space in the mouth.


STAIN, EXTRINSIC - stain located on the outside of the tooth surface originating from external substances such as tobacco, coffee, tea or food; usually removed by polishing the teeth with an abrasive prophylaxis paste.

STAIN, INTRINSIC - stain originating from the ingestion of certain materials or chemical substances during tooth development, or from the presence of caries. This stain is permanent and cannot be removed.

SUBMUCOSA - the layer of tissue under the mucous membrane.

SUCCEDANEOUS - a tooth that replaces or succeeds another.

SULCUS - a broad depression on the chewing surfaces of your back teeth.

SUPERGINGIVAL - the area above the gingival margin.

SUPERNUMERARY TEETH - Extra teeth, in addition to the development of the normal 32.

SURGICAL TEMPLATE - a clear tray used in immediate denture fabrication.



TEETHING - baby teeth pushing through gums.

TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (TMJ) - temporo(temporal bone), mandibular (lower jaw). This is the connecting hinge between the lower jaw and base of the skull. Also known as T.M.J.. T.M.J. treatment is sometimes paid under medical.

TERMINAL MESIAL STEP - the position of a vertical plane along the distal surfaces when the deciduous second molars are in Class I position.

TERMINAL PLANE - the distal surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular deciduous second molars that are on the same line or plane.


TMD - temporomandibular disorder; a problem with the joint that connects the lower jaw with the skull. Typically associated with a pop and pain in the joint.

TOPICAL - applied directly to an infected area for treatment.

TRANSVERSE RIDGE - a linear elevation that crosses a surface (usually the occlusal surface).

TRIANGULAR RIDGE - a linear elevation that forms a triangle.

TRIFURCATION - forked or divided into three parts.

TUBERCLE - a small, rounded projection.

TUBEROSITY - a large, rounded projection.


ULTRASONIC - the conversion of high frequency electrical current into mechanical vibrations.

UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS - These precautions require all dental staff involved in patient care to use appropriate protective wear, such as gloves, masks and eyewear. After each patient visit, the gloves must be discarded, hands washed and a new pair of gloves donned for the next patient. These precautions are considered universal because they are used for each and every patient to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases.

USUAL, CUSTOMARY AND REASONABLE (UCR) - the doctor's fee is considered usual, customary, and reasonable if it meets the following requirements: 1. Usual: the doctor's usual fee is charged; 2. Customary: if the doctor's fee falls in the same range as other dentists in the area; 3. Reasonable: the doctor's modified fee is justified because of special circumstances.


VENEERS – Aesthetic dentistry therapy to restoring or improving the aesthetic appearance of teeth. Overlaying front teeth with porcelain cups called veneers makes it possible to give your teeth a natural, perfect and free from defects look. Veneers are made from thin ceramic in a dental technicians laboratory

VENTRAL - the underside, used when speaking of the tongue; thus the ventral surface of the tongue is the underside of the tongue.

VIRGIN TEETH - teeth that are free from decay or restorations.


WAIVER OF DEDUCTIBLE - under some policies certain procedures are excluded from the deductible.

WISDOM TOOTH - the third molar; the eighth tooth from the center of mouth. for more information: click here!


XEROSTOMIA - dryness of the mouth.



ZIRCON-CERAMIC CROWN - see more under aesthetic dentistry







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